Data Analysis Methods/ Guidelines
Title V 5-Year Needs Assessment Indicators: Databooks 2000 to 2011
The 2013 version of the set of Title V Indicator DataBooks has changed in a few important ways. The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of the DataBooks and to introduce implications for using the DataBooks to inform local monitoring and planning activities.
Technical Guide for Using Title V 5-Year Needs Assessment Indicators: Databooks 1994-2005
This guide is an updated description of methods used to make DataBooks and how to interpret them. When first written in 2005, its purpose was to introduce DataBooks to local health juristictions and provide simple descriptions of how to interpret them. In this modest revision, we updated the example tables and figures to correspond with the 2005 data currently available, verified links, and made modest text edits. The monograph remains the best single place to learn about the DataBooks. (December 2007)
The Impact of Birth Certificate Data Quality in California On Birth Related Health Indicators in 2003
The California Center for Health Statistics (CHS) initiated an effort to improve the quality of information for the certificate of live births. (August 2006)
Do We Have a Linear Trend?
Monitoring trends in community health status is an important public health function. Statewide trends may differ from local trends. Monitoring trends also is of value in assessing the impact of public health interventions. It is important that program staff distinguish between significant differences in a number or rate from year to year, and significant trends over 5 or more years. However, few public health managers have the analytic expertise to determine whether a trend may be occurring and, if so, whether it is statistically significant. These guidelines are intended to help program staff and epidemiologists from local health jurisdictions make such determinations. (2005)
Linear Trend Explanations and Examples
Guidelines on Race/Ethnicity Data Collection, Coding and Reporting for Year 2003
Guidelines for Statistical Analysis of Public Health Data with Attention to Small Numbers
This document is intended to help institute compliance with the new national racial/ethnic data collection standards while also fulfilling California’s need for consistent and more specific data given the unparalleled complexity of its population. (January 2003)
These guidelines are intended to serve as an informal standard of practice for data analysts and program planners. (July 2003)
Unique Identifiers, Discussion, Recommendations, and Testing
An overview of criteria for selecting a unique identifier through a process that included a literature review, convening a group of experts to participate in the Unique ID Subcommittee, a survey of county MCAH directors and state program directors on uses of client tracking systems and preferences on approaches, a confidentiality and ethical literature review and participation on various state committees also studying unique ID such as the school linked data project (CIDC) and the California Health Information for Policy Project (CHIPP).(February 1995)
Public Health Planning
Evaluating a Program to Build Data Capacity for Core Public Health Functions in Local Maternal Child and Adolescent Health Programs in California
Matern Child Health J (2007) 11:1-10
The purpose of this publication was to evaluate the 6-pronged strategy utilized by FHOP to improve local Maternal and Child Health programs' capacity to collect and analyze data to support core public health functions: face-to-face training, telephone technical assistance, on-site consultation, development of automated analytic tools, development of written guidelines, and
web dissemination of data and materials.
The Planning Guide: Developing an Effective Planning Process: A Guide for Local MCH Programs
The purpose of this manual is to assist local public health agencies in conducting a needs-based, rational planning and resource allocation process. Although the processes described are generic to all planning efforts at the local level, the case examples are specific to Maternal and Child Health Programs that are required to conduct a formal needs assessment and planning process every five years in order to receive their annual block grant funds. (September 2003)
Health Indicators for California's Children and Youth
FHOP staff, under contract from the Foundation Consortium, developed a report entitled "Health Indicators for California's Children and Youth." (March 2001)
Selecting Health Indicators for Public Health Surveillance in a Changing Health Care Environment
A 24-page PDF document developed as a reference for public health agencies to utilize in assessing the impact of programs and services and systems and policy changes on the health and well being of women, infants, children and youth. (September 1997)
Measuring the Positives: Review of Positive Indicators and Guidelines for their Use
The William T. Grant Foundation, September 2001
The National Adolescent Health Information Center (NAHIC) conducted a comprehensive review and analysis of approaches to and measures of positive youth development. The following papers compare the theoretical frameworks of the primary schools of thought in this arena, and examine the domains and constructs of the variables utilized by each. The papers also identify potential pitfalls of inappropriate use of these measures, and offer recommendations for using positive indicators.
Developing a Conceptual Model to Select Indicators for the Assessment of Adolescent Health and Well-Being
Data sources and tools for measuring adolescent health status
This paper, the first in a series of three, presents the historical context for the use of health indicators in maternal and child health with a focus on adolescent health; describes the state of recent efforts to monitor the health and well-being of adolescents and their families; identifies the limitations of those efforts; and presents a framework for a new approach to
adolescent health assessment.
Bridging the Gap: Next Steps in Developing and Using Indicators to Improve Adolescent Health
The second paper in the series reviews the most well-studied and
articulated conceptual frameworks for positive adolescent development and behavior that are informing the evolution of new assessment tools and indicators; compares these approaches; reviews and synthesizes the evidence for, and scientific validity of, adolescent health indicators that are emerging today; and makes recommendations for the most promising approaches.
Assessing the "Multiple Processes" of Adolescent Health: Youth Development Approaches
The third, and final, paper proposes a framework for future efforts in the field and the development of a more comprehensive set of indicators.
Hospitalizations/ Trends and Outcomes
Longitudinal analysis of health outcomes after exposure to toxics, Willits California, 1991–2012: application of the cohort-period (cross-sequential) design.
About 1963, a factory in Willits, Mendocino County (County), California added chrome plating to the manufacture of steel products. This exposed Willits residents to hexavalent chromium (Cr6) and a variety of other toxics. After years of residents reporting high illness rates, the State undertook a series of investigations. They found exposures to various toxics had been high and warranted further research into possible health effects. Focusing on the reproductive age population and applying the seldom-used cross-sequential design, we tested if Willits had an excess rate of adverse health conditions, compared to people of the same sex and cohort living in the rest of county (ROC). Relative to the State longitudinally, Willits and ROC had comparable demographic and access disadvantages. Yet Willits had more illness per population. This may be one of the first reports on long-term health outcomes for a population exposed non-occupationally to Cr6. (December 2014)
The Impact of Changing Public Policy on California's Hospital Infrastructure and Children's Hospital Outcomes, 1983 - 2000
This study was undertaken to explore the consequences of conflicting health policies and lack of statewide planning on the healthcare infrastructure and health outcomes of California’s child population. We describe and evaluate changes in hospital management and physical capacity. Then we examine the impact of those changes on children's hospital access and outcomes. The results are expected to provide guidance to the state legislature in evaluating the way health care dollars are allocated and in promulgating regulations to affect hospital infrastructure. (July 2004)
Creating Longitudinal Hospital-Level Data Sets
Methods to Prepare Hospital Discharge Data
Per California regulations, hospital licenses are based on a given physical location. When hospitals disappear from various data files the explanation is not readily apparent. We must determine whether it is because the facility closed, merged, converted to consolidated reporting, or moved, resulting in a new license ID. Yet another possibility is that a new license ID was assigned to a facility at the same location. We developed a series of decision rules to resolve such issues in a longitudinally consistent manner. These included rules to handle changes in hospital identifiers, physical location, consolidated data reporting, ownership, organizational type, and structural capacity. This document provides a full discussion of the issues encountered in creating the hospital-level data sets, their resolution, and the creation of related analysis data sets and variables. (June 2004)
OSHPD distributes Patient Discharge Data (PDD) to qualified researchers such as the Family Health Outcomes Project (FHOP). The FHOP human subjects protocols permit us to have the confidential PDD, for all discharges and ages, from 1983 forward. Currently we have processed all years through 2000 and are about to start with the 2001 and 2002 files. This document presents an overview of the methods we developed to create the core files we use as the source for the different PDD-based research and data products that FHOP distributes. (June 2004)
The Impact of Changing Public Policy on Hospital Care for California Children Age 0 to 4 - 1983 to 1997.
In this report FHOP reviews -- from the hospital point of view -- the longitudinal impact of
changing public policy on children admitted to California's general acute care hospitals with an
eye to quality of care. (June 2000)
The Impact of Changing Public Policy
on Hospital Admission Patterns for California Children Age 0 to 4 - 1983 to 1997
The purpose of this study was to explore changes in rates and patterns of hospitalization for
children 0 to 4 over the 15-year period from 1983-1997 to determine whether changes over this
period could be related to changes in health policy for children. Between 1983 and 1997,
California hospitals discharged 1,687,886 children age 0 to 4 excluding neonates (the study
group). In this report, we focus on two variables of critical importance to policy makers that
directly reflect health equity. These are the race/ethnicity of the discharged child, the anticipated
payor at discharge, and the interplay between these. (June 2000)
Findings from the MCAH Action Home Visiting Priority Workgroup Survey "Home Visiting for Pregnant Women, Newborn Infants, and/or High-Risk Families"
The Home Visiting Priority Workgroup of California's MCAH Action (the statewide organization of Maternal, Child and Adolescent Health Directors for the 61 local public health jurisdictions in California), with the assistance of the Family Health Outcomes Project (FHOP),
developed and disseminated a self-administered questionnaire to the 61 local MCAH directors/coordinators to collect data on local health department home visiting programs that serve pregnant women, newborn infants and/or high risk families. (August 2006)
The California Child and Youth Injury Hot Spot Project, Report for the Period 1995 to 1997
California MCAH Resources > Injury Hotspot Data Tables by County
Volume 1 - State Guide
Volume 2 - County Guide
Volume 3 - Technical Guide
This report summarizes injury data for California's children and youth age 0 to 24 years statewide and for local health jurisdictions (58 counties, with Los Angeles divided into four regions, and three independent cities). The ZIP-level analysis
compares each ZIP with all other ZIPs statewide and within each jurisdiction.
The State Guide summarizes methods used to analyze the data, classify ZIPs, and presents overall statewide results. It is important to understand the statewide results in order to evaluate the meaning of regional data. Maps in this volume allow readers to visually compare their region's injury pattern with the statewide injury
pattern, and to compare ZIPs within their region to each other.
State summary tables in the State Guide can be compared with region summary tables in Volume Two: County Guide. This enables the reader to compare characteristics of injured children in a particular region of interest to state averages. We hope this will contribute to a better understanding of injuries to California's young people and their course of hospital care. ZIP-level tables in the County Guide compare a community's actual injury rates with injury rates statewide and within the region. This permits the reader to evaluate how well each community within a region safeguards its children.
Finally, for those with technical expertise who are interested in a more detailed
description of the methods and analyses, refer to Volume Three, Technical Guide. (August 2000)
HIV/AIDS Prevention Research
HIV/AIDS Prevention Intervention Among Urban, At-Risk African Americans
This publication is a part of The California Collaborations in HIV Prevention Research Dissemination Project. The modules in the Dissemination Project focus on prevention research projects that represent partnerships among funders, scientists, and front-line community service providers.
A university and community-based organization collaboration to build capacity to develop, implement, and evaluate an innovative HIV prevention intervention for an urban African American population.
AIDS Education and Prevention, 17(4), 300-316, 2005
Through forming a collaborative relationship to develop, pilot and evaluate an innovative bio-psycho-behavioral (BPB) HIV prevention intervention, capacity was built in developing an effective intervention and conducting community based research at both the California Prostitutes Prevention and Education Project (CAL-PEP) and the University of California's Family Health Outcomes
Project. The research objective was to investigate whether the BPB intervention that included sexually transmitted diseases (STD) testing and behavioral counseling, is superior to standard HIV counseling and testing.
Preventing AIDS: Community-Science Collaborations
Chapter 7: Critical Collaborations in Serving High-Risk Women: The PHREDA Project
New York, Haworth Press, Inc.: 133-162, 2004
This chapter of the book gives a brief background on PHREDA and describes the three phases of the project. The summary of the collaborative organization and highlights of our main research findings from each phase follow. We also explore how
differences in the collaborative organization, decision-making and research protocols contributed to the project's successes and failures.
What high-risk women are telling us about access to primary and reproductive health care and HIV prevention services.
AIDS Educ Prev. 1999 Dec;11(6):513-24.
This article identifies barriers to care for women at high risk for HIV through analysis of both the qualitative data from the focus groups and the quantitative data from both the outreach and the clinic survey conducted in the US.